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G20歧見來自美國 19國仍堅守巴黎協定

環資中心 2017/07/13 18:00(8天前)
建立於 2017/07/13 上稿編輯: 鄒敏惠 摘譯自2017年7月10日ENS德國,漢堡報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

美國總統川普退出巴黎氣候協定,是今年德國漢堡G20會議的最大變數,也讓主辦國德國相當傷腦筋,不過其他19國限制溫室氣體排放的決心並未動搖。

20國儘管認知到與美國的歧見,仍試著抱持正面態度,「由於能源安全是美國國家首要事項,美國表示將與其他國家密切合作,協助以更乾淨有效率地使用化石燃料、部署再生能源。」


德國總理梅克爾表示,G20不會隱藏歧見。圖片來源:Bundesregierung / Kugler

德國總理梅克爾表示,G20不會隱藏歧見。她說:「G20峰會在氣候和能源議題上,若不能達成共識,就一定會反映在G20宣言中。」其他19國的領袖也表示,《巴黎協定》是不可逆的,並加強幫助開發中國家適應氣候變遷的承諾。

G20領袖宣言指出:「我們重申實現聯合國氣候變化綱要公約(UNFCCC)的重要性,提供金援等工具,依照巴黎協定協助開發中國家緩減和適應氣候變遷。」

在首次川普和俄國總統普丁都有參與的面對面工作會議後,普丁向媒體表示,「氣候變遷是非常敏感的重大議題。雖然美國退出巴黎協定讓主辦國德國相當傷腦筋,但我認為德國已經非常努力在達成共識。」


俄國總統普丁認為,德國已經非常努力在達成共識。圖片來源:Bundesregierung / Kugler

「我們達成協議,其中也有妥協,宣言記錄下美國退出巴黎協定但是其他國家會持續合作面對氣候挑戰。」普丁說,「我認為這是好結果,要歸功於梅克爾。」

英國首相梅依在G20閉幕會議上表示,「我跟其他領袖一樣對美國退出巴黎協定感到失望,也鼓勵川普回頭是岸。英國對巴黎協定和解決氣候變遷問題的承諾始終堅定。」

國際貨幣基金(International Monetary Fund)執行董事Christine Lagarde表示,「非常欣慰G20聚焦氣候變遷、永續發展目標和低收入國家的困境。」

G20領袖宣言肯定經濟合作發展組織(Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development,OECD)5月的報告「投資氣候,投資成長」(Investing in Climate, Investing in Growth)。這份報告詳述轉型低碳世界所需的結構、財務和政治改變。這是G20中19國會採取的作法,無論川普的態度為何。

他們同意G20漢堡氣候與能源行動成長計畫(G20 Hamburg Climate and Energy Action Plan for Growth)的主張:「永續和乾淨能源創新是G20的首要任務。」

這個計畫排除美國,提到「美國正在研議其氣候變遷政策,並持續保留在本文件中的位置和內容。」

其他19國則表示他們將儘速盡可能限制氣候變遷,因為風險越來越大也越來越迫切。G20領袖宣言指出:「我們承認投資永續與乾淨能源科技和基礎建設所帶來的創新、永續成長、競爭力和就業機會。我們聯合承諾緩解溫室氣體排放,促進永續與乾淨能源以及能源效率的創新,並往低碳能源系統發展。」

儘管如此,川普也認為G20對美國來說是成功的。9日川普推特提到:「G20峰會對美國來說是大成功。美國必須修正過去所做的許多錯誤貿易決策。我會搞定!」


川普認為G20峰會對美國來說是大成功。圖片來源:Bundesregierung / Kugler
U.S. Causes Climate Dissention at G20 SummitHAMBURG, Germany, July 10, 2017 (ENS)

President Donald Trump’s decision to pull the United States out of the Paris Agreement on climate overshadowed this year’s G20 meeting in Hamburg, but did not change the determination of the other 19 members to limit damaging greenhouse gas emissions.

Chancellor Angela Merkel said the G20 nations would not try to conceal the dissent in their ranks. “With a view to the fields of climate and energy, discussed at the G20 summit,” Merkel said, “Where no consensus can be achieved, the Declaration must reflect dissent.”

The leaders of the other 19 members declared that the Paris Agreement is “irreversible,” and reinforced their commitment to help developing countries cope with the changing climate.

“We reiterate the importance of fulfilling the UNFCCC commitment by developed countries in providing means of implementation, including financial resources to assist developing countries with both mitigation and adaptation actions in line with Paris outcomes,” they state in the G20 Leaders Declaration.

While acknowledging disagreement with the United States, the 20 most industrialized nations tried to put a good face on it saying, “The United States of America states it will endeavour to work closely with other countries to help them access and use fossil fuels more cleanly and efficiently and help deploy renewable and other clean energy sources, given the importance of energy access and security in their nationally determined contributions.”

After the first face-to-face working session in which President Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin both participated, the Russian leader told reporters Saturday, “A very big and very sensitive issue is climate change. I think in this respect the Federal Republic of Germany chairing the G20 has managed to reach the best compromise in a difficult situation the chairing nation has found itself in, namely due to the US quitting the Paris Climate Agreement.”

“An agreement was reached, a compromise, when all the countries have recorded that the United States pulled out of the agreement but they are ready to continue cooperating in certain areas and with certain countries on addressing climate change challenges,” Putin said. “I think this is a positive result in itself, which can be credited to Chancellor Merkel.”

British Prime Minister Theresa May said at the close of the G20 meeting on Saturday, “Like other world leaders here, I am dismayed at the U.S. decision to pull out of the Paris Agreement and I have urged President Trump to re-join it.”


G20的女性創業小組討論。圖片來源:Bundesregierung / Kugler

“The UK’s own commitment to the Paris Agreement and tackling global climate change is as strong as ever,” said May. 

Christine Lagarde, managing director of the International Monetary Fund, said as the meeting closed, “I strongly welcome the G20’s focus on climate change, the sustainable development goals, and the challenges facing low-income countries.”

The G20 Declaration welcomed the May report from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD, “Investing in Climate, Investing in Growth.”

The report describes the structural, financial and political changes that can enable transition to a low-carbon world. That is the path the other 19 members of the G20 say they will take, regardless of the position of the Trump administration.

They agreed to the G20 Hamburg Climate and Energy Action Plan for Growth, which states,
“Innovation in sustainable and clean energy technologies is a top priority for G20 members.”

The Plan excludes the United States, noting, “The United States is currently in the process of reviewing many of its policies related to climate change and continues to reserve its position on this document and its contents.”

But the other 19 members of the group state their urgency to limit climate change as soon as humanly possible because the dangers are real and increasing.

The G20 leaders declared, “We recognise the opportunities for innovation, sustainable growth, competitiveness, and job creation of increased investment into sustainable energy sources and clean energy technologies and infrastructure.”

“We remain collectively committed to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through, among others, increased innovation on sustainable and clean energies and energy efficiency, and work towards low greenhouse gas emission energy systems,” they said.

Nevertheless, U.S. President Donald Trump views the G20 meeting as a success for the United States. “The G 20 Summit was a great success for the U.S.,” Trump tweeted at 4am on July 9. “Explained that the U.S. must fix the many bad trade deals it has made. Will get done!”

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

G20川普巴黎協定國際新聞公約全球暖化溫室氣體 作者 蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet.

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

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